Welcome to N FL! Im in Jax and I have both good and bad news for you.
Due to Jax's rapid development, you'll have to get in the mindset of traveling for ducks... not many places within Duval county and those that remain are quickly being lost to the developers.
That said there is some decent ducking in the "Golden Circle" of an hour and a half out of Jacksonville.
Within that area are a couple of management areas specifically managed for ducks: Guana WMA in Ponte Vedra, PCS Phosphate in White Springs, and Alligator lake in Lake City. All of these areas are restricted to your number of days that you can hunt per week (Sat and Wed except for A.L. which is open Tues and Thurs). You can also hunt the interior ponds at Guana during the small game seasons.
The northside marshes of Duval and Nassau counties can be good, but they are large, tidal areas that take a while to get to know em...best way for that is fishing for reds and trout in the summertime. Also you have the St. Johns river and St. Marys river...the St. Johns can get nasty if you have a small boat , but the St. Marys is nice
There are numerous lakes within an hour/hour and a half that are legal to shoot, but unfortunately many are being developed along the shoreline. Lake George can be very good, but it is large
There are also ponds, etc etc on many of the management areas around the county/locale which can be productive. Check out the FWC site for info on seasons, etc.... it takes some looking but you will often be rewarded on these smaller waters. The pressure on some of the waterfowl WMAs can be pretty high... I hunt Guana and PCS a bit and its feast or famine..
If you dont mind driving 2 hours , you have Merritt Island NWR in Titusville...it can be glorious but there are call-in restrictions and the pressure is pretty heavy.
Bird wise (Puddlers)=teal, widgeon, a few pintail, mottled ducks (florida mallards) and blacks on occasion in the salt water, gadwall, and your occasional golf course greenhead. Good numbers of wood ducks. (Divers) bluebills, Ringnecks (most common diver on the freshwater lakes), some redheads, the occasional canvasback and bufflehead.
Call wise - get a whistle. Not many ducks around here respond well to heavy calling....subtlety is the key in FLA
Deke wise - a small puddler rig (teal and a few bigger birds, I like the look of mottled/black duck decoys and add a few widgeon and sprig; diver wise I have two set ups... bluebills for the salt and some ringers and coots for freshwater. Also some cans and redheads if theyre around.
Can be an interesting place to hunt. Can be good...can be bad. You have to scout and respond. Again, subtlety is key -- by the time theyre here theyve been hammered for 2000 miles, so were dealing with some pretty educated birds.
Couple of sites to consider :
FloridaWaterfowler.com -- im revising the site this summer. Boards are slow in the summertime and pick up during the season.
AmericanWaterfowlers.com -- lots of the old guys from the now defunct SouthernDuckHunter SDH site
UnitedWaterfowlersFL.org -- UW -- Florida's leading waterfowl hunter advocacy group. Good bunch -- ive been a member since day 1.
Again, welcome to FLA! Where are you stationed? NAS or Mayport?