The .30 carbine will do fine. Just limit yourself to 100 yards or less and broadside shots with soft nose expanding type bullets. Remember that most states have a magazine capacity rule - 5 or less in most areas.
It is very tiring when so many guys tell you that you need a .300 magnum to shoot a deer. The .243 caliber puts the .30 carbine to shame energy & ballistics-wise and most guys will say it isn't enough for a deer. The 1,000# of energy rule has been put to bed - most handgun cartridges are only putting 500-600# with 1,000-1,400 fps and blow all the way thru, tearing 'em up worse than a shotgun slug.
Good thing you don't have to listen to 'em.
IF you do decide that another rifle is better - an H&R single shot will run you about $275 and can be had in a multitude of calibers. A .308, 30-30, .243, or even a .44 mag would be great. The .44 is a 150 yard or less gun. The 30-30 is good for 200 yards. The .243 is good for 300 yards. The .308 is the most powerful (well over 300 yards) and doesn't kick much.
If I was to pick one of the above, it would be a 30-30. Cheap bullets - $12/box or so, 150-170 gr soft points good out to 125-150. Hornady flex tip Leverevolution is good for 200 yards. Light recoil - easy and fun to shoot.
The .308 or .44 would kick the most, depending on loads. .243 doesn't kick bad - 55-100 gr bullets (100 gr size bracket for deer).
Best of luck!