I'll assume you were not using a glove or tab with your finger hurting like that. You should practice how ever you will be shooting for hunting. If bare fingered keep your glove off hunting and bare right hand in your jacket until ready to shoot at a deer. Your finger hurt because they are not used to shooting. Shoot less at each time out and shoot every day and the fingers will be tougher in two weeks and you will be fine.
You state shooting instinctive but talk about lining it up, which is gap shooting. Instinctive is like throwing a baseball. Its eye hand coordination that you have to develop over time. It takes longer to learn than gap shooting but works better, IMO. Gap shooting is one eye like a rifle and instinctive is both eyes open. I could hit a rabbit at 30 yards as a kid more times than not. Got cocky one day as a kid and figured I could hit swallows flying and lost half my arrows.
Start at ten yards and move the target out farther as you get more confident. Once you get that get blunt arrows and a ball and shoot at varying distances to improve your range judgement skills. Welcome to your new addiction.